EPA’s environmental performance

Scope 3 GHG emissions


Natural gas – trigeneration plant

Base building electricity – communal areas of buildings where EPA is a tenant

Base building natural gas – communal areas of buildings where EPA is a tenant

Stationary fuels – thermal generators including tri-generation and backup generators

Air travel

Taxi travel

Public transport

Reticulated water

Office paper

Waste

Fuel extraction, production and transportation

Electricity transmission and distribution process

Natural gas transmission and distribution losses

Catering

Staff commuting

Courier services

Printing and publication services

Natural gas – trigeneration plant
Activity data EPA’s portion of natural gas consumed by the thermal tri-generation plant as stated on invoices provided by the plant manager – expressed in gigajoules (GJ)
Calculation method

formula for trigeneration plant

Z is the sum for all gas types of (Q times EFj divided by 1000)

Where:

Z is the scope 3 emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Q is the quantity of natural gas (GJ)

EFj is the emission factor for each gas type (j) which includes the effect of an oxidation factor (kg.CO2-e/GJ)

Assumptions

None

Reference National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA) Factors conversion factors – Table 2

Department of Environment and Energy

Base building electricity – communal areas of buildings where EPA is a tenant
Activity data

Electricity consumption amounts as provided by the property manager – expressed in kilowatt hours (kWh)

Calculation method

formula for base building electricity

Z is Q times EF divided by 1000 times NLAfrac

Where:

Z is the full cycle (scope 2 and 3) emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Q is the quantity of electricity (kWh)

NLAfrac is the fraction of Net Lettable Area (NLA) occupied by EPA to the NLA for the whole property

EF is the full cycle (scope 2 and 3) emission factor for Victoria (kg.CO2-e/kWh)

Assumptions

Emissions associated with purchases of GreenPower are zero

Reference

National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA) Factors conversion factors – Table 41

Department of Environment and Energy

Base building natural gas – communal areas of buildings where EPA is a tenant
Activity data Natural gas consumption amounts as provided by the property manager – expressed in gigajoules (GJ)
Calculation method

Formula for base building natural gas

Z is Q times EF divided by 1000 times NLAfrac

Where:

Z is the full cycle (scope 2 and 3) emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Q is the quantity of natural gas (GJ)

NLAfrac is the fraction of Net Lettable Area (NLA) occupied by EPA to the NLA for the whole property.

EF is the full cycle (scope 2 and 3) emission factor for Victoria (kg.CO2-e/kWh)

Assumptions Emissions associated with purchases of GreenPower are zero
Reference

National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA) Factors conversion factors –Table 41

Department of Environment and Energy

Stationary fuels – thermal generators including tri-generation and backup generators
Activity data Diesel consumption amounts as provided by the building landlord based on dipstick measurements – expressed in litres (L)
Calculation method

Formula for stationary fuels

Z is the sum for all gas types of (Q times EC times EFj divided by 1,000,000)

Where:

Z is the scope 3 emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Qi is the quantity of diesel (L).

EC is the energy content factor for diesel (GJ/kL)

EFj is the emission factor for each gas type (j), which includes the effect of an oxidation factor, for diesel (kg.CO2-e/GJ)

Assumptions None
Reference

National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA) Factors conversion factors – Table 3

Department of Environment and Energy

Air travel
Activity data Flight transaction records as provided by EPA’s travel agent. Flight transaction records include origin, destination and distance travelled for each flight – expressed in kilometers (km)
Calculation method

Formula for air travel

Z is the sum for all flights of (Qi times EFij divided by 1000)

Where:

Z is the scope 3 emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Qi is the distance travelled (km) for flight (i)

EFij is the emission factor for haul type (j), which includes the effect of radiative forcing, for flight (i) (kg.CO2-e/km)

Assumptions

Haul types are based on distances set by the United Kingdom (UK) Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs (DEFRA).

Emission factors for air travel are inclusion of radiative forcing

Reference

Greenhouse gas reporting – Conversion factors 2016 (tab Business – air)

United Kingdom Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy

Taxi travel
Activity data Taxi travel expenditure data provided by Cab Charge – expressed in Australian currency ($)
Calculation method

Formula for taxi travel

Z is the sum for all gas types of (Q times R times FE times EC times EFj divided by 1000000)

Where:

Z is the scope 3 emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Q is the total spend ($) on taxi travel

R is the taxi rate (km/$) for Victoria

FE is the fuel efficiency of taxi vehicles consuming LPG (L/km)

EC is the energy content factor for LPG (GJ/kL)

EFj is the emission factor for each gas type (j), which includes the effect of an oxidation factor, for LPG (kg CO2-e/GJ)

Assumptions

Fuel type for all taxi travel is assumed to be LPG as indicated by the Victorian Taxi Association (VTA)

Fuel efficiency of taxi vehicles is 0.1725 L/km as provided by the VTA.

Taxi rates were obtained from the VTA

Reference

National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA) Factors conversion factors – Table 4

Department of Environment and Energy

Public transport
Activity data Public transport expenditure data as sourced from EPA’s finance system – expressed in Australian currency ($)
Calculation method

Formula for public transport

Z is Q times EF divided by 1000

Where:

Z is the scope 3 emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Q is the total expenditure on public transport ($)

EF is the emission factor for the public transport developed by EPA’s Green Stars Committee (kg.CO2-e/$)

Assumptions EF is based on bus, rail and tram usage patterns at EPA and the emissions and fares associated with these types of transport
Reference Emissions factors were obtained from Simmons, G., Department of Transport, July 2012

Reticulated water
Activity data Water consumption amounts as stated on supplier invoice – expressed in kilolitres (kL)
Calculation method

formula for reticulated water

Z is Q times EF divided by 1000

Where:

Z is the scope 3 emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Q is the total quantity of water consumed (kL)

EF is the emission factor for water consumption (kg.CO2-e/kWh) as derived from data available from water authorities

Assumptions EF is derived from greenhouse gas emissions data and total water supply data published by Victoria’s Metropolitan Water Authorities – Melbourne Water Corporation; City West Water; Yarra Valley Water; and South East Water in their annual reports
Reference Annual Reports for Victoria’s Metropolitan Water Authorities

Office paper
Activity data Weight of paper purchased from paper supplier – expressed in kilograms (kg). Supplier data also includes additional information about the origin of paper manufacturing, recycled content and carbon neutrality status
Calculation method

Formula for office paper

Z is the sum for all paper types of (Qi times EFij divided by 1000)

Where:

Z is the scope 3 emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Qi is the total weight (kg) of each paper type (i)

EFj is the emission factor for each paper type (i) (kg.CO2-e/kg)

Assumptions

EFj varies dependent on the manufacturing location (domestic or international) and the quantity of recycled content of the paper type.

Paper certified as carbon neutral has zero net emissions

Reference Emission factors were obtained from RMIT’s Centre for Design and Ecoinvent

Waste
Activity data Waste volume and waste data as obtained from EPA’s annual waste audit. The period of the waste audit is two weeks within the reporting period. Results are extrapolated for 52 weeks
Calculation method

Formula for waste

Z is the sum for all waste types of (Qi times EFi divided by 1000)

Where:

Z is the scope 3 emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Qi is the extrapolated total weight (kg) of each waste type (i)

EFi is the emission factor for each waste type (i) (kg.CO2-e/kg)

Assumptions

EFj varies dependent on the manufacturing location and the quantity of recycled content of the paper type.

Paper certified as carbon neutral has zero net emissions

Reference Emission factors were obtained from RMIT’s Centre for Design

Fuel extraction, production and transportation
Activity data Total transport and stationary fuel amounts as per transport fuels and stationary fuels above – expressed as litres (L)
Calculation method

Formula for fuel extraction, production and transportation

Z is the sum for all fuel types of (Qi times ECi times EFi divided by 1,000,000)

Where:

Z is the scope 3 emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Qi is the quantity of fuel type (i) (L)

ECi is the energy content factor for fuel type (i) (GJ/kL)

EFi is the scope 3 emission factor for fuel type (i) (kg.CO2-e/GJ)

Assumptions None
Reference

National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA) Factors conversion factors – Table 40

Department of Environment and Energy

Electricity transmission and distribution process
Activity data Total purchased electricity amounts as per above – expressed in kilowatt hours (kWh)
Calculation method

formula for transmission and distribution loss

Z is Q times EF divided by 1000

Where:

Z is the scope 3 emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Q is the quantity of electricity purchased (kWh)

EF is the scope 3 emissions factor for Victoria (kg.CO2-e/kWh)

Assumptions EF for purchases of GreenPower has been set to zero
Reference

National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA) Factors conversion factors – Table 41

Department of Environment and Energy

Natural gas transmission and distribution losses
Activity data Total natural gas amounts as per above – expressed as gigajoules (GJ)
Calculation method

formula for natural gas and distribution losses

Z is the sum for all locations of (Qi times EFij divided by 1000)

Where:

Z is the scope 3 emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Qi is the quantity of natural gas (GJ) separated in to metro and regional

EFij is the scope 3 emission factors for the metro and regional Victoria (i) (kg.CO2-e/GJ)

Assumptions None
Reference

National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA) Factors conversion factors – Table 38

Department of Environment and Energy

Catering
Activity data Catering expenditure report from EPA’s finance system – expressed in Australia currency ($). Catering is broken down by food and beverage type
Calculation method

Formula for catering

Z is the sum for all paper types of (Qi times EFij divided by 1000)

Where:

Z is the scope 3 emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Qi is the expenditure ($) for each food and beverage type (i)

EFij is the scope 3 emission factors for each food and beverage type (i) (kg.CO2-e/$)

Assumptions EFij is indexed for inflation
Reference Emission factors were obtained from RMIT’s Centre for Design and Ecoinvent

Staff commuting
Activity data Survey of staff commuting patterns. The survey provides a snap shot of how staff commute to and from EPA office location over the period of one week. This includes modes of transport and distance travelled. Results are extrapolated for 52 weeks and total full-time equivalent (FTE) employees. Data provided included mode of transport and distance travelled
Calculation method

Formula for staff commuting

Z is the sum for all transport modes of (Qi times EFij divided by 1000)

Where:

Z is the scope 3 emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Qi is the distance travelled (km) for mode of transport (i)

EFij is the scope 3 emission factors for each mode of transport (i) (kg.CO2-e/$)

Assumptions EFi is based on information from the Australia Bureau of Statistics (ABS) in conjunction with conversation factors in the NGA Factors
Reference

National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA) Factors conversion factors – Table 4

Department of Environment and Energy

Survey of Motor Vehicle Use- Australian Bureau of Statistics

Courier services
Activity data Courier services expenditure data from EPA’s finance system – expressed in Australia currency ($)
Calculation method

formula for courier services

Z is Q times EF divided by 1000

Where:

Z is the scope 3 emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Q is the expenditure ($) for courier services

EF is the scope 3 emission factor for the courier services (kg.CO2-e/$)

Assumptions EF is indexed for inflation
Reference

Greenhouse gas reporting – Conversion factors 2016 (tab freighting goods)

United Kingdom Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy

Printing and publication services
Activity data Printing and publication expenditure data from EPA’s finance system – expressed in Australia currency ($)
Calculation method

Formula for printing and publication services

Z is Q times EF divided by 1000

Where:

Z is the scope 3 emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Q is the expenditure ($) for printing and publications services

EF is the scope 3 emission factor for the printing and publication services (kg.CO2-e/$)

Assumptions EF is indexed for inflation
Reference

Greenhouse gas reporting – Conversion factors 2016 (tab freighting goods)

United Kingdom Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy

Page last updated on 24 Aug 2017