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Did you know that:

  • Many parts of the Victorian Goldfields were intensively mined for gold. Historically, these activities generated a waste, often referred to as mine tailings or mining wastes.
  • Mine tailings from historic mining activities can be found in the Goldfields region.
  • Mine tailings often contain arsenic and other contaminants that may be harmful to health.
  • The effects of prolonged exposure to small amounts of arsenic may not be immediately noticeable, so it is best to reduce your exposure.
  • Children, pregnant women, and people with medical conditions are more susceptible to health effects from arsenic.
  • You can limit your risk by reducing your contact with mine tailings during everyday activities, such as gardening and children’s play activities.
  • Following these guidelines will also help protect you from other contaminants found in mine tailings.

Mine tailings and contaminants

Many parts of the Victorian Goldfields have been intensively mined for gold. Before regulation, waste generated through mining was often left at or just below the surface. Known as mine tailings, calcined sands, or mining waste, they can contain arsenic, lead and other contaminants that can be harmful to your health.

How to recognise mine tailings

EPA's reference guide Understanding the types of historic mining waste in the Goldfields region includes images and descriptions of common types of mine tailings.

Arsenic and health

Arsenic can be harmful to health, however, just because arsenic is in the environment, does not mean you will be exposed at harmful levels.

Some of the health effects associated with arsenic are summarised here.

Short term health effects of arsenic poisoning

Swallowing a large amount of arsenic, in a short period of time (hours or days) can cause severe health effects. Large amounts of arsenic can irritate the stomach and intestines and may damage the heart, liver, kidneys, nerves, and blood.

Someone with arsenic poisoning may suffer from:

  • Stomach pains, nausea (feeling sick), vomiting and diarrhoea (runny bowel actions).
  • Extreme tiredness, weakness, abnormal heartbeat, and bruising.
  • A feeling of numbness or ‘pins and needles’ in the hands and feet.

Long term health effects of arsenic poisoning

If people frequently swallow smaller amounts of arsenic every day over many years, they may show long term health effects such as:

  • Skin changes such as light and dark spots and thickened skin on the palms, soles, and trunk
  • Stomach pains, nausea (feeling sick), vomiting and diarrhoea (runny bowel actions)
  • Lung irritation, cough, sore throat
  • Damage to the heart, liver, kidney, nerves, blood, and blood vessels
  • Cancers, including those of the skin, lung, stomach, kidney, and prostate
  • Learning, behavioural and coordination problems.

How arsenic in mine tailings enters the body

Arsenic in soil is not easily absorbed through the skin. Simply touching it is not a concern.

Arsenic can enter the body by inhaling or swallowing dust or soil from mine tailings. Everyone normally swallows or breathes in very small amounts of dust and soil every day. Young children take in more dust and soil because they frequently put fingers or toys in their mouths.

Lead and other contaminants may also be present in mine tailings, and can enter the body in similar ways.

Arsenic exposure from mine tailings

People living or working in areas with high levels of arsenic in soil or mine tailings may absorb more arsenic than people in other areas.

Soil and dust ingestion is the largest exposure, and the most important to manage. However, not all arsenic in soil is absorbed by the body. Some arsenic stays attached to the soil particles and passes through your system.

Some environmental conditions may increase your exposure to arsenic. For example, windy conditions and air pollution from bushfires may increase exposure from uncovered soil.

Fruit and vegetables can take up small amounts of arsenic, but not at levels that will cause health problems. The amount of arsenic that plants absorb depends on soil acidity (also known as pH), nutrient content, iron, organic matter. Chickens and other animals can also take up arsenic, which may be found in their meat and eggs.

Health risks of arsenic exposure

Except in rare poisoning cases, harm occurs when people are exposed to small to moderate amounts of arsenic over a very long period of time. Some studies have reported possible health effects in people living in areas with high arsenic levels in the soil.

The risk (or chance) of health effects from arsenic in mine tailings depends on many factors. These include:

  • The level of arsenic and other metal contaminants
  • The amount of soil and dust that is inhaled or swallowed
  • The age and size of the person, and if they are pregnant or have other conditions
  • The lifestyle of the person (e.g. time spent outdoors, digging, or playing)
  • The length of time that they are exposed.

What you can do

Steps to take if there are mine tailings on or near your property

General advice

  • Do not let children play on mine tailings or put sand from mining waste in your child’s sand pit.
  • Cover children’s play areas with:
    • 30cm of clean soil that is covered with grass, mulch, or woodchips,
    • thick plastic sheeting with a covering of soil or woodchips
    • Impermeable pavers.
  • Do not use mine tailings in landscaping works or dig in areas with grey or calcined sands. If unsure, wear a disposable dust mask that fits snugly over your nose and mouth and throw it away after use.
  • Reduce dust by:
    • covering mine tailings
    • dampening soil prior to landscaping or gardening work.
  • After gardening:
    • Keep dedicated gardening clothes, gloves, and shoes outside the house
    • Wash hands and face

Home-grown fruit, vegetables and poultry

Garden fruits and vegetables are unlikely to contain high arsenic levels, but you can further reduce your exposure by:

  • Washing home grown fruit and vegetables to remove soil and dust before eating
  • Keeping chickens in pens with sealed floors or replace topsoil in their area with 30 cm of clean soil.
  • Growing vegetables with clean soil in raised garden beds or pots that are at least 30 centimetres deep and are sealed at the bottom.
  • Keeping soil in the neutral pH range of between 6 and 7, and adding organic matter (compost or manure), iron (if in an area with low iron soil) and nutrients, when growing fruit and vegetables in the ground.

Using dam water or rainwater tanks

Dust and soil from mine tailings can be found in dams and rainwater tanks. Testing is recommended before using water from these sources. This can be arranged through a commercial laboratory.

It is also recommended that you:

Inside the house

Dust and soil from mine tailings can enter your home through the movement of people, animals, or the elements.

To reduce your exposure:

  • Wash your hands and your young children’s hands, particularly before eating and sleeping
  • Wash children’s toys regularly to remove soil and dust
  • Wash family pets often if they play outdoors and live indoors
  • Reduce dust and soil in your home by placing mats at the door, and leaving shoes outside, to stop tracking soil into the house.
  • Mop and dust down surfaces with a damp cloth, or using a vacuum cleaner with a HEPA (high-efficiency particulate air) filter regularly
  • Close windows and doors when it is windy
  • Consider sealing gaps and cracks around windows and doors or walls.
  • Consider using an indoor HEPA air purifier can also reduce indoor dust.

What to do if you think you may have mine tailings on your property

If you think that you may have mine tailings on your property and want to have them assessed, you should engage a suitably qualified person, such as an environmental consultant.

People living at properties with mine tailings have a duty to manage the contamination. You should let anyone, including trades people, future property owners or renters know that mining wastes may be present on the property.

Steps you can take if you are worried about your health

If you have concerns about your or your family’s health, speak to your doctor.

Removing mine tailings

There are laws that define how mine tailings must be removed.

If you decide to remove mine tailings from your property, contact the Environment Protection Authority for advice.

Reviewed 24 July 2023