On this page

Waste classification

EPA sets the standards for what type of waste an existing landfill can accept. All prescribed industrial wastes intended for landfill disposal must be classified into one of three categories, depending on the level of hazard. Category A is the highest hazard and Category C is the lowest hazard. Category A wastes must be treated and can not be accepted at any landfill.

Financial assurance

EPA requires financial assurances from landfill operators/owners and any sites which accept any prescribed waste for the purposes of reprocessing, treatment, storage or disposal; or which generate and then reprocess, treat, store or dispose of certain wastes.

Financial assurances are intended to provide a guarantee that the costs of remediation, site closure and post-closure liabilities are not borne by the community if the occupiers of the premises abandon the site, become insolvent or incur clean-up costs beyond their financial capacity.

Licensing and approval

A works approval must be obtained before a landfill can be constructed, except for municipal landfills serving a population of fewer than 500 people. A licence under the Environment Protection Act is required for all landfills, apart from municipal landfills serving a population of fewer than 5000 people. The licence sets the performance objectives for the operating landfill, defines operating parameters and requires monitoring to check on environmental performance.

Landfill levies

Landfill levies are levies paid on all waste disposed of at licensed landfills in Victoria. Levy funds are used exclusively for environment protection activities, including promoting the sustainable use of resources and best practices in waste management.

The landfill levy structure reflects the difference in the magnitude of environmental risk posed by the different waste streams and also seeks to accommodate regional differences. Levies also provide an incentive to minimise the generation of waste, sending a signal to industry that the Government supports efforts to develop alternatives to disposal to landfill.

Until 30 June 2015, all landfill levies were paid into the Environment Protection Fund. Money received from Municipal & Industrial landfill levies was distributed by EPA in accordance with the Environment Protection (Distribution of Landfill Levy) Regulations 2010.

From 1 July 2015, following the enactment of the Environment Protection and Sustainability Victoria Amendment Act 2014, EPA has passed on all Municipal & Industrial landfill levies it collects to the Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning (DELWP), which has taken over responsibility for distributing funds to regional waste and resource recovery groups (RWRRGs), Sustainability Victoria and EPA. DELWP also administers levy funds allocated by the Premier and the Minister for Environment and Climate Change through the Sustainability Fund (Sustainability Victoria).

We audit landfill levy statements.

Read next

About landfills

Landfills and the environment

Victorian Landfill Register

Hazardous waste (PIW) in landfills

Closed landfills

Landfill guidance for operators and councils


This page was copied from EPA's old website. It was last updated on 14 December 2018.

Reviewed 24 August 2020